1) Formulation of the research problem:
Necessity is the mother of all inventions, and accordingly, it is a problem which necessitates research. A general area of interest is selected by the researcher initially to indicate the problem.
The problem is evaluated by the program, which helps to shed new light on the facts and collecting of useful fact to plan social or even policy-making purposes. Social scientists involved their values as well as the social conditions which are prevalent in order to select the problem for the research.
It is suggested that this influence should be avoided as much as possible. The use of variation and topics of research because scientists also differ in their values and their preferences. This is the reason why the topics of the research very wide with different scientists.
The need for a specific problem is always fat by the scientist’s sensor general topic fails twin sure that the ability to examine the data resides and the methods that are needed to adapt and organize them along with the formulation of the specific problem is always there.
This helps the researcher to sharpen his goal and to make it clear cut. The purpose of this is not only to guide the researcher but also to sharpen for narrow is questions like a pinpoint.
For example, if a general topic of any industry or domain is compared with a pyramid base and the specific topic is exactly opposite to it which resembles the apex of the pyramid.
It is not an easy task to formulate a problem which has arisen out of a practical or theoretical situation. Even if it appears easy to do so, it is not the case, and in fact, it is more of a herculean task. Significant people by Charles Darwin have said that ‘looking back it seems that seeing and understanding the problem is more difficult than solving them. ‘
since the problem itself poses a lot of difficulties and the same is experienced by the researchers, one should ensure that the formulation of the problem is done in such a way that it should be explained and put in an efficient way so that it justifies the saying that a problem well put is half solved.
There are three general questions which are considered as three important components that are involved in the process of problem formulation
- What does one want to know?
- What could be the probable answers to the originating questions?
There should be a rational base for the problems of the solution that is provided itself has a more rational base. The answers that are provided justify the concerns of the problem, which are theoretical or practical in nature.
The answers that are provided by the theoretical rationale in terms of enlargement or propagation of the existing ideas or theory. It helps to shed light on the consistency is which are observed in the existing theories and ensures them to examine those inconsistencies and determine their nature in terms of reality.
On the other hand, to bring desired values, the practical rationale should be able to justify the answers to the questions of the researcher. It is very crucial that the formation of the problem is done in an efficient way so that the solution is found in the same manner.
If there is a flaw in the problem, the solution itself will be full of flaws, and it won’t be good research.
2) Literature review
The research is based on pastor knowledge, and the researcher should always make sure to take advantage of the north, which is already available or preserved earlier.
This not only helps the investigator to avoid replicating the hypothesis of earlier research but also enables him and provides evidence that he knows the current research which has already been done and can work on the untested and unknown field.
The literature review also means that the summary of writings how the earlier researchers and recognize the authority is in the particular area have been analyzed and summarised.
Books and libraries are the best places to find all human knowledge which is accumulated in the past. The published literature provides dear approaches which have been selected and helps the current researcher to study those approaches and take the baton from thereon.
The primary function of the literature review is that the research is given direction and information update related to the problem and the multiple ways that have already been tried to solve the problem and probably failed. This also helps the researcher to find his own hypothesis and save time doing what the earlier researchers had done.
The primary objectives of literature reviews are
- To avoid the studies which are overlapping with each other
- How to provide explanations ideas of the theory is which will be helpful in writing and defining the nature of the research problem.
- To formulate hypothesis by being a fertile source for it.
- To find out and suggest different methods in order to collect data and to explore different sources of data and techniques which are appropriate for the problem.
- To study and analyze what the earlier researchers had done.
- To ensure that the researcher is kept known of the current developments with regards to his area of activity.
Following are a few of the principles that the researcher has to follow for the review of the literature:
- The researcher should ensure that he has obtained an overall view from a source which is general and which has materials which are likely to provide the nature along with the meaning of concept and variables.
- After that, the researcher should also ensure that the reviewing that is conducted in the concerned field should review empirical researches.
- A systematic manner is approached in order to review the library materials, and also it should be thorough in nature.
- If at all he has mentioned any references, the researcher should ensure that it is mentioned in the bibliographic data.
3) Formation of Hypothesis in Research Design
The next step in the research is to formulate a hypothesis which will be tentative with nature and which would explain the nature of the problem. This explanation is tentative in nature refers to the statement of relation and relates two or more variables.
In order to formulate a hypothesis, the researcher collects information from multiple sources such as previous reports, existing theories, and literature which have worked with you on a similar problem.
Some of the studies test the hypothesis while others are formulating the hypothesis. The hypothesis for marketing studies are the ones which are exploratory studies since these end up with the formulation of hypothesis.
On the other hand, researches, which are hypothesis testing, start with a clearly defined and formulated hypothesis. The researcher has to state the definitions of concept so that they translate to the official and formal definitions and convey the nature of the problem into observables references.
In order to develop a hypothesis, it is essential to explain the nature of the relationship between two or more variables.
If one of the variable influences the other in the first variable is called as independent while the second is termed as the dependent variable. A correlation exists when one variable changes and influences another variable. It is very crucial that the researcher separates the dependent and independent variables from each other.
4) Formulating a Research Design
Once the problem has been defined, and the literature review is completed after formatting of the hypothesis, the researcher then starts to work on the design of the research. The design of research must be a blueprint for the general collection.
It acts as a standard guidepost by providing answers to multiple questions. It also helps in carrying out research accurately, objective, the economically and validity and is therefore fail-proof.
The research designs vary according to their need and the purpose of the research as well as the point of view working procedure.
There are basically four categories of research design:
- Diagnosis and
There are four parts of Research design according to the realizable working procedure.
- Sampling design which is used to physically for sampling and selection of the units for the research purposes.
- The observational design describes the method in which observations are to be collected.
- The statistical design which describes the techniques statistically which are used in the analysis of data along with its interpretation.
- The operational design which deals with the techniques by which entire research can be carried out. The handset has all the three designs which are mentioned above, such as observational statistical and sampling designs.
5) Defining the nature of the study
The nature of the study as the cause of the individual items which are under consideration in the field of study. Nature refers to the sum of units for individuals from which a sample is another east in order to find out results, and that analysis is applied to it.
The researcher also separates the target and server population in order to define the scope of the study. Target units are the one which is applied to the results of the research. On the other hand, survey units are the ones which are included in sampling and all the ones from which the sample is taken.
In most of the purposes, this distinction is not significant, and the entire population must be defined in clear terms.
6) Sample design
It is not possible under different circumstances to enumerate all of the atoms included in the universe because it requires the result of resources like Mani time and energy which is why the researcher decides to select a representative from the population known as a sample and the process is known as simple design.
It is useful how to predetermine a sample before going for the entire research.
There are different types of samples which are as follows:
- Probability samples
- Purposive or judgment or subjective sampling
- Mixed sampling.
The probability samples are the ones which are drawn from the universe which is according to the laws of chance and are based on on the proper scientific technique in which every sample in the unit has a predefined probability of being selected.
In case of Subjective or Purposive or judgment sampling, the units are purposefully our desperately drawn depending on the investigation objectives, and these include only the important ones which represent it the population completely.
These units are selected in mixed sampling according to fixed sampling rule for according to fixed sampling rule, which does not depend on chance.
Simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, complex random sampling, haphazard or convenience sampling, cluster and area sampling, judgment sampling, and quota sampling a few of the important types of sampling.
7) Administration of the tools of Data collection in Research Design
Appropriate data is required for any research work. Along with appropriateness, the data should also be adequate. Considering the financial and time and other resources which are available, the data may differ considerably.
Things like nature of the investigation, scope of the inquiry, objective and financial resources along with the desired degree of accuracy and the time which is available after of the things that the researcher has to take into consideration.
Apart from this, the ability and experience of the researcher also have very much importance in the data collection that is required.
Journals newspapers reports published earlier and books are of the sources from which secondary data can be collected, and the primary data can be collected by survey or experimentation. In order to conduct a survey, the data is gathered by personal interviews observations making of the questionnaire on telephonic interviews and nowadays via the Internet.
8) Data analysis
After the collection of data is completed the investigator then has to analyze the collected data which involves operations like segregating the data into different categories and application of coding for deposition to the raw data that is collected.
Statistical conclusions were drawn after that. These operations are supervised very closely, and at the beginning, it is the researchers who have to classify some of the raw data into different categories based on similar purposes.
The coding is done in order to change the categories of data and make them tabulated and countable. After that, during the postcoding stage, the data which is collected is put into tabulated form, and this is done in the technical your manually with the devices such as computers.
If the data is very is ours than computers are used wisely in case of small data, manual mode is used. Standard statistical formulas and methods are applied in order to test the validity of the data by the researchers so that he arrives at some definite conclusion.
9) Hypothesis testing in Research Design
The studies do not always confirm the original hypothesis, and in many cases, the hypothesis may be refused, and the researcher in such cases mastery for a visit there results and conclusions. It is not possible in case of behavioral sciences to test multiple hypotheses.
The scientist can test the research hypothesis by making a sample for direct observation. On this observable basis, they determine if the hypothesis is consistent or not with the logical consequences, and that is why the indirect test of this hypothesis can be made.
The research hypothesis that is derived from the theory helps to provide an inconclusive test. A much stronger logical test is formed if the rejection of the null hypothesis. It is defined as a hypothesis of no difference, which is why the rejection of it results in the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis.
Various tests have been developed by statisticians like t-test, F-test, chi-square test in order to test the hypothesis. If there is no hypothesis, to begin with, then the generalizations are the only way to serve as the basis of hypothesis.
10) Interpretation and generalization
After the test of hypothesis is completed in Research Design, and the validity is confirmed, the researcher has reached a stage of generalization, which is generally seen as a real value to the research.
Only in case of hypothesis testing studies is this possible but thing hypothesis formulating studies where there is an absence of hypothesis the researcher has to you interpret his findings.
In other words, the theoretical framework may be used by the researcher in order to explain the findings of his research, which may raise new questions.